This graphic novel goes beyond accepted knowledge and myths about the Black Panther Party to tell a complex, well researched history. The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was created in 1966 in Oakland, CA, but is actually rooted in the oppression of Black people in America, going back to the time of enslavement. The narrative draws a line from that time, through the Civil War to the civil rights movement, showing how the Panthers were inevitable.
In chronicling the history, author David F. Walker often breaks from the narrative panels and uses full pages to take a closer look at people and events. In addition to in depth information about pivotal figures Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton, we learn more about less well known men and women who were essential to the Panthers’ founding. The narrative documents many of the Panthers’ successes, including launching free nutrition, clothing, education, and medical care programs. The book is equally clear about the Party’s violent acts and internal conflicts. Shifts in leadership and disagreements about priorities and tactics lead to power struggles. We also get an informative deep dive into J. Edgar Hoover’s Counter Intelligence Program. COINTELPRO, as it was known, was the covert, illegal domestic surveillance of political groups. Walker includes a memo outlining the secretive group’s goal of eliminating all organizations advocating for Black power or civil rights. He details how the FBI’s tactics – planting informants, inflaming rivalries between the Panthers and rival organizations and colluding with local law enforcement – significantly weakened the Party.
Marcus Kwame Anderson’s art supports the story beautifully. The realistic renderings bring the people and their experiences to life. The colors are muted but work well to depict both the successes and the struggles of the Party. Overall this graphic novel does a stellar job of conveying the complicated legacy of the Black Panther Party’s people and programs. An extensive bibliography with resources for further reading is included.